One of the key features of Yoast SEO Premium that sets it apart from the free version is the inclusion of a fairly robust redirection feature. It can do a bunch of things related to redirects, including regex redirections and serving 410s when you trash a post.
It can also monitor and automatically capture changed slugs and apply a 301 redirect pointing to the new URL. So if you edited the slug of a published post to make it more SEO-friendly or to remove stop words, when you resave the post, Yoast SEO Premium can automatically add a redirect from the old URL to the new one. (That's also a feature the free Redirection plugin has.)
That can be a very handy feature. But I've found that things can also go a bit wonky. For whatever reason, on one of my sites the feature went rogue and started saving an entirely new version of the post whenever I updated the content of the post (not the slug). So I was getting a new version of the post at a new URL and a redirection from the old URL to the new one.
That creates a real mess and is a problem for SEO. I don't know precisely where the problem lies and have no easy way to diagnose it (or the inclination to spend the time diving in deep with Yoast support staff to figure it out). It's possible it's not even just the Yoast SEO Premium plugin causing the problem but some kind of weird interaction with something else going on in my Wordpress install that's now over 10 years old. But I've found a quick workaround that has solved the problem for me.
I've found that by disabling Yoast SEO Premium's automatic capturing of redirects, it solves the problem. No more duplicate posts being created with new slugs. Of course, it also means that I no longer get automatic redirects when I change the slugs of published posts, but I can live without that because I generally set the slug before I publish.
Snippet for Functions.php
This is the snippet I've used in my theme's functions.php file:
// Yoast SEO Disable Automatic Redirects for Posts And Pages add_filter('wpseo_premium_post_redirect_slug_change', '__return_true' );
As you can see in the code's comment, this specific snippet applies to posts and pages. You can also apply it to taxonomies such as tags and categories. And you turn off the notifications when you delete a post or taxonomy term.
You can find more details about that here.